Major facilities for HEDP studies

OMEGA, Laboratory for Laser Energetics, University of Rochester, Rochester, NY, USA.

The OMEGA laser beam facility has 60 laser beams that focus up to 40 kJ of energy onto a target with a size of less than 1 mm in diameter in approximately 1 nsec.

"Z" Pulsed Power Z-Pinch Facility, Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM, USA.

The Z pulsed power accelerator at Sandia is the world's most powerful and most efficient (15%) laboratory x-ray source. The Z accelerator produces up to 290 TW of x-ray power and an x-ray energy of 1.9 MJ in a pulse of about 10 nsec.

National Ignition Facility (NIF), Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA, USA.

The NIF is designed to study high energy density plasmas and, ultimately, demonstrate fusion ignition within an inertial confinement fusion capsule. A weak laser pulse is created, split, and carried on optical fibers to 48 preamplifiers that increase the pulse's energy by a factor of 10 billion, to a few joules. The 48 beams are then split into four beams each for injection into the 192 main laser amplifier beamlines. NIF's 192 laser beams routinely create temperatures and pressures similar to those that exist only in the cores of stars and giant planets and inside nuclear weapons.

The Laser Megajoule Facility(LMJ), CEA, Bordeaux, France.

The Megajoule Laser facility (LMJ), being built in the Bordeaux region of France, is designed to study high energy density plasmas and inertial confinement fusion. The LMJ is a giant experimental tool that simultaneously uses many optical components (mirrors, lenses, networks, etc.) to deliver, in a few billionths of a second, more than 1 MJ of light energy to targets measuring a few millimeters in size. It was officially commissioned on October 23, 2014, with the performance of a first series of experiments. When completed, LMJ will have 240 laser beams that will deliver 1.8 MJ of energy to a target.