SPECT3D Documentation

On-Line Documentation

SPECT3D comes with on-line documentation and a set of examples that allow users to get started quickly. Many of the user interface windows have Help buttons that go directly to the relevant help page.

Overview Paper

SPECT3D - a multi-dimensional collisional-radiative code for generating diagnostic signatures based hydrodynamics and PIC simulation output, J. MacFarlane, I. Golovkin, P. Wang, P. Woodruff, N. Pereyra, High Energy Density Phys., Vol. 3, pp. 181-190 (2007)

SPECT3D Reports and Whitepapers

The physics algorithms in SPECT3D are the same as those used in PrismSPECT. For examples of post-processing results from radiation-hydrodynamics simulations, readers are referred to HELIOS reports and whitepapers.


Research Papers

  • Flux and estimated spectra from a low-intensity laser-driven X-ray source. L. Tyler Mix, J. Maslow, M. Jaworski, J. Coleman, Laser and Particle Beams, v. 42 (2024).
  • Demonstration of a hydrodynamically equivalent burning plasma in direct-drive inertial confinement fusion. V. Gopalaswamy, C. Williams, R. Betti, D. Patel, J. P. Knauer, A. Lees, D. Cao, E. Campbell, P. Farmakis, R. Ejaz, K. Anderson, R. Epstein, J. Carroll-Nellenbeck, I. Igumenshchev, J. Marozas, P. Radha, A. Solodov, C. Thomas, K. Woo, T. Collins, S. Hu, W. Scullin, D. Turnbull, V. Goncharov, K. Churnetski, C. Forrest, V. Glebov, P. Heuer, H. McClow, R. Shah, C. Stoeckl, W. Theobald, D. Edgell, S. Ivancic, M. Rosenberg, S. Regan, D. Bredesen, C. Fella, M. Koch, R. Janezic, M. Bonino, D. Harding, K. Bauer, S. Sampat, L. Waxer, M. Labuzeta, S. Morse, M. Gatu-Johnson, R. Petrasso, J. Frenje, J. Murray, B. Serrato, D. Guzman, C. Shuldberg, M. Farrell, C. Deeney, Nat. Phys. (2024).
  • Seeding the electrothermal instability through a three-dimensional, nonlinear perturbation. E. Yu, T. Awe, K. Cochrane, K. Peterson, K. Yates, T. Hutchinson, M. Hatch, B. Bauer, K. Tomlinson, D. Sinars, Phys. Rev. Lett., v. 130, p. 255101, (2023).
  • Three-dimensional feedback processes in current-driven metal. E. Yu, T. Awe, K. Cochrane, K. Peterson, K. Yates, T. Hutchinson, M. Hatch, B. Bauer, K. Tomlinson, D. Sinars, Phys. Rev. E, v. 107, p. 065209, (2023).
  • Seeding the electrothermal instability through a three-dimensional, nonlinear perturbation. E. Yu, T. Awe, K. Cochrane, K. Peterson, K. Yates, T. Hutchinson, M. Hatch, B. Bauer, K. Tomlinson, D. Sinars, Phys. Rev. Lett., v. 130, p. 255101, (2023).
  • Probing atomic physics at ultrahigh pressure using laser-driven implosions. S. Hu, D. Bishel, D. Chin, P. Nilson, V. Karasiev, I. Golovkin, M. Gu, S. Hansen, D. Mihaylov, N. Shaffer, S. Zhang, T. Walton, Nature Comm., v. 13, p. 6780, (2022).
  • Establishing an isoelectronic line ratio temperature diagnostic for soft X-ray absorption spectroscopy. T. Lane, M. Koepke, P.Kozlowski, G. Riggs, T. Steinberger, I.Golovkin, High Energy Density Phys., v. 45, p. 101019, (2022).
  • Development of an x-ray radiography platform to study laser-direct-drive energy coupling at the National Ignition Facility. L. Ceurvorst, W. Theobald, M. Rosenberg, P. Radha ,C. Stoeckl, R. Betti, K. Anderson, J. Marozas, V. Goncharov, E. Campbell, C. Shuldberg, R. Luo, W. Sweet, L. Aghaian, L. Carlson, B. Bachmann, T. Doppner, M. Hohenberger, K. Glize, R. Scott, A. Colaitis, S. Regan, Phys. Sci. Instr., v. 93, p. 105102, (2022).
  • A feasibility study of using X-ray Thomson Scattering to diagnose the in-flight plasma conditions of DT cryogenic implosions. H. Poole, D. Cao, R. Epstein, I. Golovkin, T. Walton, S. Hu, M. Kasim, S. Vinko, J. Rygg, V. Goncharov, G. Gregori, S. Regan, Phyis. Plasmas, v. 29, p. 072703, (2022).
  • Emission phases of implosion sources for x-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy. D. Chin, J. Ruby, P. Nilson, D. Bishel, F. Coppari, Y. Ping, A. Coleman, R. Craxton, J. Rygg, G. Collins, Phys. Plasmas, v. 29, p. 053901 (2022).
  • Strong suppression of heat conduction in a laboratory replica of galaxy-cluster turbulent plasmas. J. Meinecke, P. Tzeferacos, J. Ross, G. Gregori, et al., Science Advances, v. 8(10), p. 6799, (2022).
  • Causes of fuel–ablator mix inferred from modeling of monochromatic time-gated radiography of OMEGA cryogenic implosions. T. Collins, C. Stoeckl, R. Epstein, W. Bittle, C. Forrest, V. Glebov, V. Goncharov, D. Harding, S. X. Hu, D. Jacobs-Perkins, T. Kosc, J. Marozas, C. Mileham, F. Marshall, S. Morse, P. Radha, S. Regan, B. Rice, T. Sangster, M. Shoup III, W. Shmayda, C. Sorce, W. Theobald, M. Wittman, Phys. Plasmas, v. 29, p. 012702 (2022).
  • Magnetic field effects on laser energy deposition and filamentation in magneto-inertial fusion relevant plasmas. S. Lewis, M. Weis, C. Speas, M. Kimmel, R. Bengtson, B. Breizman, M. Geissel, M. Gomez, A. Harvey-Thompson, J. Kellogg, J. Long, Q. Looker, H. Quevedo, P. Rambo, N. Riley, J. Schwarz, J. Shores, J. Stahoviak, K. Struve, D. Ampleford, J. Porter, T. Ditmire, Phys. Plasmas, v. 28, p. 122701 (2021).
  • A multi-channel x-ray temporal diagnostic for measurement of time-resolved electron temperature in cryogenic deuterium–tritium implosions at OMEGA. N. Kabadi, A. Sorce, C. Stoeckl, H. Sio, P. Adrian, M. Bedzyk, J. Frenje, J. Katz, J. Knauer, J. Pearcy, D. Weiner, B. Aguirre, R. Betti, A. Birkel, D. Cao, M. Gatu Johnson, D. Patel, R. Petrasso, S. Regan, Rev. Sci. Instruments, v. 92, p. 023507 (2021).
  • The design of a photoionization front experiment using the Z-Machine as a driving source and estimated measurements. H. LeFevre, M. Springstead, K. Kelso, R. Mancini, G. Loisel, P. Keiter, R. Drake, C. Kuranz, Phys. Plasmas, v. 28, p. 093304 (2021).
  • The effect of laser entrance hole foil thickness on MagLIF-relevant laser preheat. A. Harvey-Thompson, M. Weis, D. Ruiz, M. Wei, A. Sefkow, T. Nagayama, E. Campbell, J. Fooks, M. Glinsky, K. Peterson, Physics of Plasmas, Vol. 27, p. 113301, (2020).
  • Asymmetry study from the hot-spot self-emission imaging of inertial confinement fusion implosion driven by high-power laser facilities. Y. Dong, D. Kang, W. Jiang, Z. Liu, Z. Chen, X. Zhang, X. Li, C. Sun, C. Yin, J. Dong, Z. Yang, Y. Pu, J. Yan, B. Yu, T. Huang, W. Miao, Z. Dai, F. Ge, D. Yang, F. Wang, J. Yang, S. Jiang, Plasma. Sci. Technol., Vol. 22(8), p. 084003, (2020).
  • Temperature distributions and gradients in laser-heated plasmas relevant to magnetized liner inertial fusion. K. Carpenter, R. Mancini, E. Harding, A. Harvey-Thompson, M. Geissel, M. Weis, S. Hansen, K. Peterson, G. Rochau, Phys. Rev. E, Vol. 102, p. 023209, (2020).
  • Soft x-ray spectrum unfold of K-edge filtered x-ray diode arrays using cubic splines. D. Barnak, J. Davies, J. Knauer, P. Kozlovski, Rev. of Scientific Instruments, Vol. 91, p. 073102, (2020).
  • Inferred UV fluence focal-spot profiles from soft x-ray pinhole-camera measurements on OMEGA. W. Theobald, C. Sorce, W. Donaldson, R. Epstein, R. Keck, C. Kellogg, T. Kessler, J. Kwiatkowski, F. Marshall, S. Sampat, W. Seka, R. Shah, A. Shvydky, C. Stoeckl, L. Waxer, S. Regan, Rev. of Sci. Instr., Vol. 91, p. 023505 (2020).
  • Modeling hydrodynamics, magnetic fields and synthetic radiographs for high-energy-density plasma flows in shock-shear targets. Y. Lu, S. Li, H. Li, K. Flippo, D. Barnak, A. Birkel, B. Lahmann, C. Li, A. Rasmus, K. Kelso, A. Zylstra, E. Liang, P. Tzeferacos, D. Lamb, Physics of Plasmas, Vol. 27, p. 012303 (2020).
  • Parameterizing hot electron energy distributions for tabular emissivities and opacities. T. Walton, J. Sebald, I. Golovkin, J. MacFarlane, V. Golovkina, A. Solodov, P. Nilson, R. Epstein, High Energy Density Physics, Vol. 33, p. 100730, 2019.
  • Interpreting the electron temperature inferred from x-ray continuum emission for direct-drive inertial confinement fusion implosions on OMEGA. D. Cao, R. Shah, S. Regan, R. Epstein, I. Igumenshchev, V. Gopalaswamy, A. Christopherson, W. Theobald, P. Radha, V. Goncharov, Physics of Plasmas, Vol. 26, p. 082709 (2019).
  • X-ray spectroscopy of planar laser-plasma interaction experiments at the National Ignition Facility. M. Rosenberg, R. Epstein, A. Solodov, W. Seka, J. Myatt, P. Michel, M. Barrios, D. Thorn, M. Hohenberger, J. Moody, S. Regan, Physics of Plasmas, Vol. 26, p. 012703 (2019).
  • The interaction of intense femtosecond laser pulses with argon microdroplets studied near the soft x-ray emission threshold. R. Irsig, M. Shihab, L. Kazak, T. Bornath, J. Tiggesbaumker, R. Redmer, K-H. Meiwes-Broer, J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys., Vol. 51, p. 024006 (2018).
  • Properties of hot-spot emission in a warm plastic-shell implosion on the OMEGA laser system. W. Shang, C. Stoeckl, R. Betti, S. Regan, T. Sangster, S. Hu, A. Christopherson, V. Gopalaswamy, D. Cao, W. Seka, D. Michel, A. Davis, P. Radha, F. Marshall, R. Epstein, A. Solodov, Phys. Rev. E, Vol. 98, p. 1-9, (2018).
  • Numerical study of core formation of asymmetrically driven cone-guided targets. H. Sawada, H. Sakagami, Physics of Plasmas, Vol. 24, p. 100703 (2017).
  • Benchmark experiment for photoionized plasma emission from accretion-powered X-ray sources. G. Loisel, J. Bailey, D. Liedahl, C. Fontes, T. Kallman, T. Nagayama, S. Hansen, G. Rochau, R. Mancini, R. Lee, Phys. Rev. Letters, Vol. 119, p. 075001 (2017).
  • A multi-axial time-resolved spectroscopic technique for magnetic field, electron density, and temperature measurements in dense magnetized plasmas. E. Dutra, J. Koch, R. Presura, W. Angermeier, T. Darling, R. Mancini, A. Covington, FY2017 LANL Annual Report, Nevada National Security Site, Site-Directed Research and Development, pp. 27-34 (2017).
  • Ab initio simulations of the dynamic ion structure factor of warm dense lithium. B. Witte, M. Shihab, S. Glenzer, R. Redmer, Physical Rev. B, Vol. 95, p. 144105 (2017).
  • Applications and results of X-ray spectroscopy in implosion experiments on the National Ignition Facility. R. Epstein, S. Regan, B. Hammel, L. Suter, H. Scott, M. Barrios, D. Bradley, D. Callahan, C. Cerjan, G. Collins, S. Dixit, T. Doppner, M. Edwards, D. Farley, K. Fournier, S. Glenn, S. Glenzer, I. Golovkin, A. Hamza, D. Hicks, N. Izumi, O. Jones, M. Key, J. Kilkenny, J. Kline, G. Kyrala, O. Landen, T. Ma, J. MacFarlane, A. Mackinnon, R. Mancini, R. McCrory, D. Meyerhofer, N. Meezan, A. Nikroo, H. Park, P. Patel, J. Ralph, B. Remington, T. Sangster, V. Smalyuk, P. Springer, R. Town, J. Tucker, AIP Conference Proceedings, Vol. 1811, p. 190004 (2017).
  • Numerical investigations of potential systematic uncertainties in iron opacity measurements at solar interior temperatures. T. Nagayama, J. Bailey, G. Loisel, G. Rochau, J. MacFarlane, I. Golovkin, Phys. Rev. E, Vol. 95, p. 063206 (2017).
  • Two-color monochromatic x-ray imaging with a single short-pulse laser. H. Sawada, T. Daykin, H. McLean, H. Chen, P. Patel, Y. Ping, F. P'erez, Review of Scientific Instruments, Vol. 88, p. 063502 (2017).
  • Simulation and analysis of time-gated monochromatic radiographs of cryogenic implosions on OMEGA. R. Epstein, C. Stoeckl, V. Goncharov, P. McKenty, F. Marshall, S. Regan, R. Betti, W. Bittle, D. Harding, S. Hu, I. Igumenshchev, D. Jacobs-Perkins, R. Janezic, J. Kelly, T. Kosc, C. Mileham, S. Morse, P. Radha, B. Rice, T. Sangster, M. Shoup III, W. Shmayda, C. Sorce, J. Ulreich, M. Wittman, High Energy Density Physics, Vol. 23, p. 167-177, (2017).
  • Demonstration of space-resolved x-ray Thomson scattering capability for warm dense matter experiments on the Z accelerator. T. Ao, E. Harding, J. Bailey, R. Lemke, M. Desjarlais, S. Hansen, I. Smith, M. Geissel, A. Maurer, J. Reneker, D. Romero, D. Sinars, G. Rochau, J. Benage, High Energy Density Physics, Vol. 18, p. 26 - 37, (2016).
  • Characterization of near-LTE, high-temperature and high-density aluminum plasmas produced by ultra-high intensity lasers. V. Dervieux, B. Loupias, S. Baton, L. Lecherbourg, K. Glize, C. Rousseaux, C. Reverdin et al., High Energy Density Physics, Vol. 16, pp. 12-17 (2015).
  • Developed turbulence and nonlinear amplification of magnetic fields in laboratory and astrophysical plasmas. J. Meinecke, P. Tzeferacos, A. Bell, R. Bingham, R. Clarke, E. Churazov, R. Crowston, H. Doyle, P. Drake, R. Heathcote, M. Koenig, Y. Kuramitsu, C. Kuranz, D. Lee, M. MacDonald, C. Murphy, M. Notley, H. Park, A. Pelka, A. Ravasio, B. Reville, Y. Sakawa, W. Wan, N. Woolsey, R. Yurchak, F. Miniati, A. Schekochihin, D. Lamb, G. Gregori, Proc. of the Natl. Acad. of Sci. of the USA, Vol. 112, p. 8211-8215,(2015).
  • Two-dimensional axisymmetric models of laser induced plasmas relevant to laser induced breakdown spectroscopy. S. Shabanov, I. Gornushkin, Spectrochimica Acta, Part B, Vol. 100, p. 147 - 172 (2014)
  • Shock physics analysis to support optical signature prediction in hypervelocity impacts. A. Ward, R. Nance, J. Cogar, J. MacFarlane, W. Reinhart, T. Thornhill, J. Grun, R. Lunsford, W. Moore, Procedia Engineering, Vol. 58, p. 634 - 641 (2013)
  • Simulation of X-ray scattering diagnostics in multi-dimensional plasma. I. Golovkin, J. MacFarlane, P. Woodruff, I. Hall, G. Gregori, J. Bailey, E. Harding, T. Ao, S. Glenzer, High Energy Density Physics, Vol. 9, p. 510 - 515 (2013)
  • Crossed-beam energy transfer in direct-drive implosions. I. Igumenshchev, W. Seka, D. Edgell et al., Physics of Plasmas, Vol. 19, p. 056314 (2012)
  • Investigatingi inertial confinement fusion target fuel conditions through x-ray spectroscopy. S. Hansen, Physics of Plasmas, Vol. 19, p. 056312 (2012).
  • Hot-Spot mix in ignition-scale implosions on the NIF. S. Regan, R. Epstein, B. Hammel et al., Physics of Plasmas, Vol. 19, p. 056307 (2012).
  • Diagnosing laser-driven, shock-heated foam target with Al absorption spectroscopy on OMEGA EP. H. Sawada, T. Yabuuchi, S. Regan, K. Anderson, M. Wei, R. Betti, J. Hund, M. Key, A. Mackinnon, H. McLean, R. Paguio, P. Patel, K. Saito, R. Stephens, S. Wilks, F. Beg, High Energy Density Physics, Vol. 8, p. 180 - 183 (2012).
  • Thomson scattering measurements of temperature and density in a low-density, laser-driven magnetized plasma. D. Schaeffer, D. Montgomery, A. Bondarenko et al., Journal of Instrumentation, Vol. 7, p. 02002 (2012).
  • Extreme ultraviolet spectroscopy and modeling of Cu on the SSPX Spheromak and laser plasma “Sparky”. M. Weller, A. Safronova, J. Clementson, V. Kantsyrev, U. Safronova, P. Beiersdorfer, E. Petkov, P. Wilcox, G. Osborne, Rev. of Sci. Instruments, Vol. 83, p. 1 - 3 (2012).
  • Spectroscopic observations of Fermi-degenerate aluminum compressed and heated to four times solid density and 20 eV. S. Regan, H. Sawada, V. Goncharov et al., High Energy Density Physics, Vol. 7, pp. 259-262 (2011).
  • Observation of K-shell soft x-ray emission of nitrogen irradiated by XUV-free electron laser FLASH at intensities greater than 1016 W/cm2. E. Galtier, F. Rosmej, O. Renner, L. Juha et al., Contrib. Plasma Phys., Vol. 51, No. 2-3, p. 284-287 (2011).
  • X-ray absorption spectroscopy for wire-array z-pinches at the non-radiative stage. V. Ivanov, P. Hakel, R. Mancini, J. Chittenden et al., High Energy Density Physics, Volume 7, Issue 4, pp. 383-390 (2011).
  • Measurement of the ionization state and electron temperature of plasma during the ablation stage of a wire-array Z pinch using absorption spectroscopy. V. Ivanov, P. Hakel, R. Mancini et al., Phys. Rev. Letters, Vol. 106, p. 225005 (2011).
  • Doppler effects on 3-D non-LTE radiation transport and emission spectra. S. Hansen, B. Jones, J. Giuliani, J. Apruzese et al., High Energy Density Physics, Vol. 7, pp. 303-311 (2011).
  • Applied spectroscopy in pulsed power plasmas. G. Rochau, J. Bailey, Y. Maron, Physics of Plasmas, Vol. 17, p. 055501 (2010).
  • Radiative models of laser-induced plasma and pump-probe diagnostics relevant to laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy. I. Gornushkin, U. Panne, Spectrochimica Acta, Part II, Vol. 65, p. 345 - 359 (2010).
  • Orbital relaxation effects on temperature diagnostics of mid-Z plasmas. F. Jin, T. Huang, Y. Ding, Z. Zheng, J. Yuan, J. Quantative Spectroscopy and Radiative Transfer, Vol. 111, p. 78 - 86 (2010).
  • Modelling, design and diagnostics for a photoionised plasma experiment. I. Hall, T. Durmaz, R. Mancini, J. Bailey, G. Rochau et al., Astrophys. Space Sci., Vol. 322, pp. 117-121 (2009).
  • Simulations of Fe at 156 eV with configuration interaction and mixed UTA. M. Klapisch, M. Busquet et al., High Energy Density Physics, Vol. 5, pp. 105-109 (2009).
  • Applied plasma spectroscopy: laser-fusion experiments. S. Regan, B. Yaakobi, T. Boehly et al., High Energy Density Physics, Vol. 5, pp. 234-243 (2009).
  • Al 1s-2p absorption spectroscopy of shock-wave heating and compression in laser-driven planar foil. H. Sawada, S. Regan, P. Radha et al., Physics of Plasmas, Vol. 16, p. 052702 (2009).
  • Experimental investigation of opacity models for stellar interior, inertial fusion, and high energy density plasmas. J. Bailey, G. Rochau, R. Mancini et al., Physics of Plasmas, Vol. 16, p. 058101 (2009).
  • The effects of target mounts in direct-drive implosions on OMEGA. I. Igumenshchev, F. Marshall, J. Marozas et al., Physics of Plasmas, Vol. 16, p. 082701 (2009).
  • Implosion dynamics and x-ray generation in small-diameter wire-array Z pinches. V. Ivanov, V. Sotnikov, J. Kindel et al., Phys. Rev. E, Vol. 79, p. 056404 (2009).
  • Spectrally resolved and Rosseland and Planck mean opacities of iron plasmas at temperatures above 100 eV: a systematic study. G. Cheng, Z. Jiaolong, Phys. Rev. E, Vol. 78, p. 046407 (2008).
  • Implosion dynamics and K-shell x-ray generation in large diameter stainless steel wire array Z pinches with various nesting configurations. B. Jones, C. Coverdale, C. Deeney et al., Physics of Plasmas, Vol. 15, p. 122703 (2008).
  • Dynamics of conical wire array Z-pinch implosions. D. Ampleford, S. Lebedev, S. Bland et al., Physics of Plasmas, Vol. 14, p. 102704 (2007).
  • Iron-plasma transmission measurements at temperatures above 150 eV. J. Bailey, G. Rochau, C. Iglesias et al., Physical Review Letters, Vol. 99, Issue 26, p. 265002 (2007).
  • Spectroscopic analysis and NLTE radiative cooling effects in ICF capsule implosions with mid-Z dopants. I. Golovkin, J. MacFarlane, P. Woodruff, J. Bailey, G. Rochau, K. Peterson, T. Mehlhorn, R. Mancini, J. Quatitative Spectroscopy and Radiative Transfer, Vol. 99, p. 199 - 208 (2006).
  • Crystal spectroscopy of silicon aero-gel end-caps driven by a dynamic hohlraum on Z. T. Nash, T. Sanford, R. Mock, R. Leeper, G. Chandler, J. Bailey, J. McKenney, T. Mehlhorn, J. Seaman, J. McGurn, D. Schroen, C. Russell, P. Lake, D. Jobe, T. Gilliland, D. Nielsen, J. Lucas, T. Moore, J. Torres, J. MacFarlane, J. Apruzese, R. Chrien, G. Idzorek, D. Peterson, R. Watt, J. Quatitative Spectroscopy and Radiative Transfer, Vol. 91, p. 333 - 345 (2005).
  • Time- and space-resolved spectroscopy of dynamic hohlraum interiors. J. Bailey, G. Chandler, G. Rochau, Y. Maron, S. Slutz, G. Dunham, I. Golovkin, P. Lake, R. Lemke, J. Lucas, J. MacFarlane, T. Mehlhorn, T. Moore, D. Schroen, E. Stambulchik, K. Youngblood, High Energy Density Physics, Vol. 1, p. 21 - 30 (2005).
  • Hot dense capsule-implosion cores produced by Z-pinch dynamic hohlraum radiation. J. Bailey et al., Physical Review Letters, Vol. 92, Issue 8, p. 085002 (2004).
  • Opacity measurements of tamped NaBr samples heated by z-pinch X-rays. J. Bailey, P. Arnault, T. Blenski, G. Dejonghe, O. Peyrusse, J. MacFarlane, R. Mancini, M. Cuneo, D. Nielsen, G. Rochau, J. Quatitative Spectroscopy and Radiative Transfer, Vol. 81, p. 31 - 45 (2003).
  • Analysis of radiation-driven jetting experiments on NOVA and Z. R. Lawrence, T. Mehlhorn, T. Haill, K. Budge, T. Trucano, K. Cochrane, J. MacFarlane, AIP Conf. Proc, Vol. 620, p. 291 - 294 (2002).